[i]  (test scores) NAEP, Long Term Trends reports, U.S. Department of Education, (cost) Digest of Education Statistics 2011, Table 191, U.S. D.O.E, CPI adjusted to constant 2012 $. Missing values linearly interpolated or extrapolated.


[ii]  (test scores)


[iii]  (test scores)


[iv]  (poverty)


[v]  (TANF funding)


[vi]  (poverty)


[vii]  (national defense)


[viii]  (veterans’ care)


[ix]  (healthcare)


[x]  (homelessness)


[xi]  (infrastructure)


[xii]  (environment)


[xiii] (environment)


[xiv] (environment)


[xv]  (accountability) Testing Theories of American Politics: Elites, Interest Groups, and Average Citizens, Princeton University, 2014:


[xvi] (involuntary collection)


[xvii] (DTM)


[xviii] (CHM)


[xix] (Praxis)


[xx] (Praxis)


[xxi] (nonprofit giving)


[xxii] (tax expenditure checkoff)


[xxiii] (hometown tax)


[xxiv] (hometown tax)


[xxv] (tax credit)