Sources:

[i][ii][iii][iv][v][vi][vii][viii][ix][x][xi][xii][xiii][xiv][xv][xvi][xvii][xviii][xix][xx][xxi][xxii][xxiii][xxiv][xxv]

[i]  (test scores) NAEP, Long Term Trends reports, U.S. Department of Education, (cost) Digest of Education Statistics 2011, Table 191, U.S. D.O.E, CPI adjusted to constant 2012 $. Missing values linearly interpolated or extrapolated.

 

[ii]  (test scores) http://thelearningcurve.pearson.com/index/index-comparison/2014-highest

 

[iii]  (test scores) https://nces.ed.gov/surveys/pisa/pisa2015/index.asp

 

[iv]  (poverty) https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/education/wp/2015/09/24/more-than-1-in-5-u-s-children-are-still-living-in-poverty/

 

[v]  (TANF funding) http://www.cbpp.org/research/family-income-support/how-states-use-federal-and-state-funds-under-the-tanf-block-grant

 

[vi]  (poverty) https://www.census.gov/library/publications/2016/demo/p60-256.html

 

[vii]  (national defense) http://dbb.defense.gov/Portals/35/Documents/Meetings/2015/2015-01/CBP%20Task%20Group%20Out-brief%20Slides_FINAL.pdf

 

[viii]  (veterans’ care) http://www.va.gov/oig/pubs/VAOIG-14-01792-510.pdf

 

[ix]  (healthcare) http://www.anh-usa.org/microsite/fda-deathmeter/

 

[x]  (homelessness) http://www.endhomelessness.org/pages/snapshot_of_homelessness

 

[xi]  (infrastructure) https://www.transportation.gov/policy-initiatives/grow-america/road-and-bridge-data-state

 

[xii]  (environment) https://www.epa.gov/air-trends/air-quality-national-summary

 

[xiii] (environment) http://www.cnn.com/2016/06/28/us/epa-lead-in-u-s-water-systems/

 

[xiv] (environment) http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation-now/2017/01/13/epa-wont-pay-claims-mine-spill-released-3m-gallons-toxic-water/96555846/

 

[xv]  (accountability) Testing Theories of American Politics: Elites, Interest Groups, and Average Citizens, Princeton University, 2014: http://scholar.princeton.edu/sites/default/files/mgilens/files/gilens_and_page_2014_-testing_theories_of_american_politics.doc.pdf

 

[xvi] (involuntary collection) https://www.irs.gov/businesses/small-businesses-self-employed/anti-tax-law-evasion-schemes-law-and-arguments-section-i

 

[xvii] (DTM) http://www.threatmanagementcenter.com/

 

[xviii] (CHM) http://www.chministries.org/aboutus.aspx

 

[xix] (Praxis) http://www.collegedata.com/cs/content/content_payarticle_tmpl.jhtml?articleId=10064

 

[xx] (Praxis) https://discoverpraxis.com/

 

[xxi] (nonprofit giving) https://givingusa.org/giving-usa-2016/

 

[xxii] (tax expenditure checkoff) http://money.cnn.com/2014/04/11/pf/taxes/checkoff-box/

 

[xxiii] (hometown tax) https://www.furusato-tax.jp/

 

[xxiv] (hometown tax) http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2014/10/20/reference/hometown-tax-donations-system-catching/#.WLd_AW8rJoA

 

[xxv] (tax credit) https://taxrevolution.us/voluntary-taxation-is-here/